To me, math is the foundation of many other disciplines of study. Math is the earliest type of science. Math is a complex system of numbers, algorithms, and proofs. Using math, many things can be done. Math allows for its user to be able to study circumstances that they encounter. The reason that I call math a "science" is because without math, no scientific studies would be able to be quantified, all studies would have to be qualitative and therefore much less precise. Math is the building block onto which all other forms of number systems and theories can be and have been built. For instance, the theory of gravity is only a theory because it can be quantified as a velocity of 9.8 meters per second. Before the mathematical calculations, only the thought of gravity could be used, there was no precision as to how gravity affected all the things on the Earth.
There have been many discoveries in math. I have ranked the top 5 in the order of importance that I find them for math below.
- Pythagorean Theorem
- The Fibonacci Sequence